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Chapter 6: Clayton Christensen’s theory of disruptive innovation

José Claudio Securato Saint Paul Editora PDF Criptografado

6CLAYTON CHRISTENSEN’STHEORY OF DISRUPTIVEINNOVATIONUnderstanding Professor Clayton Christensen’s theory on disruptive strategy is critical in order to build a reasoning and address disruptive education, as we will see in Part III of this book. Christensen has had a lot of influence on my ideas and, even more, has encouraged me to come up with a concept that I find innovative for learning: Onlearning.Christensen questioned the logic of business development in recent decades and opened my eyes to different ways of thinking the executive education sector.However, the goal here is not to evaluate whether Onlearning is a disruptive innovation, but to get to know some of the characteristics of disruption, in a new proposal for executive education.THE THEORY OF DISRUPTIVE STRATEGYIn 1995, the theory of disruptive strategy presented by Harvard Business School professor Clayton Christensen challenged the logic of traditional innovation – which he called sustaining innovation – and identified a type of innovation that deconstructs the way organizations think, called disruptive innovation1. History shows that, in practice, disruptive innovation is all that eliminates what was there before and, often, takes its place. Like David’s fight against the giant Goliath, it relates to the vigor and creativity of a small and sometimes unpretentious business which, cleverly and bravely, beats a market giant – who many times is immobilized, hostage to its own track record of success.

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Chapter 11: Onlearning

José Claudio Securato Saint Paul Editora PDF Criptografado

11ONLEARNING« It is far easier to perceive and tocriticize the aspects in motivation theory than to remedy them1.(Abraham Maslow)ONLEARNINGWatch the video “LIT What is the concept ofOnlearning?”.In this chapter, I present the eight fundamentals of Onlearning, and bring you its concept and definition. Onlearing is a new conception of learning. For this reason, its foundations defy the conventional logic of business schools and universities. With this model, I propose solutions mainly for the future of executive education – not only for the present – in line with Clayton Christensen’s disruptive strategy theory.I will explain each of the fundamentals separately, but without ever attempting to exhaust them. On the contrary, I am aware that each of the themes I address here would deserve a separate book.Some of the fundamentals that I cover here may seem to be barely tangible, as there are no comprehensive records of their application around the world, however all are proven to be possible to be implemented. Most of these fundamentals have a strong connection and need for technology to be enabled. It is reasonable, therefore, to evolve very quickly in the way that each of these fundamentals is applied and made tangible. Therefore, even if some of these applications of the fundamentals may seem “delayed”, the concepts that underlie them are timeless.

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Chapter 3: Companies influence consumption and train workers to sustain organizational culture

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3COMPANIES INFLUENCE CONSUMPTIONAND TRAIN WORKERS TO SUSTAINORGANIZATIONAL CULTUREThe first 50 years of the 20th century were marked by the two biggest wars ever seen in the world. If World War I had already shocked for the number of deaths, the degree of destruction caused and the strategies developed by then, WorldWar II came with even more strength, more technology, and an ideological burden that deepened the conflict, decimating between 50 and 75 million lives1.For the first time, the majority were civilians. Several bombings were carried out on a large number of cities, leaving many of them completely destroyed, and permanently erasing much of humanity’s historical heritage.On September 1, 1939, when the Nazist German army of Adolf Hitler invaded Poland, several countries were already at war: Ethiopia against Italy; China against Japan, among others. In addition, the Spanish Civil War, which directly involved Italy and Germany in supporting Franco’s military coup, was also taking place. Many of these combats were still related to the postponement of the search for an effective resolution to pre-existing conflicts that triggered World

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Chapter 2: Science and technology create a new world: from the economy to education, the path to efficiency opens

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2SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCREATE A NEW WORLD: FROMTHE ECONOMY TO EDUCATION,THE PATH TO EFFICIENCY OPENSKnowing the historical panorama of the turn of the 19th to the 20th century is fundamental, so that we can have the dimension of how dynamic that period was. From 1894 onwards, there were such striking changes in economics, science and technology that the world would never be the same after this period. Thus, technological advance boosted the economy, and the gold standard established a world economy, narrowing the boundaries between countries, stimulating trade between the great powers and promoting growth.The gold standard was created as a way to unify the world’s economy, establishing the sameThe Golden criteria for all countries in trade and financial reAge, together with lations. By adopting the gold standard, one country showed the rest of the world that it was ecotechnological availability, nomically reliable. In contrast, countries seeking allowed intense self-sufficiency suffered from isolation in a world with fewer and fewer barriers. integration between the

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Chapter 10: Disruptive education

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10DISRUPTIVE EDUCATIONChristensen’s ideas can shed light on some of the transformations we need in school, mutatis mutandis1.DISRUPTIVE EDUCATIONHaving presented the context and the reasons for encouraging the concept of disruptive education, I go ahead with this chapter to address its four foundations:1.2.3.4.Clayton Christensen’s disruptive innovation model in educationUnesco’s four pillars for lifelong learningAndragogyHeutagogySplitting into two parts, we have: education and disruption, terms that I associate with their respective foundations, arriving at the concept of disruptive education.When it comes to education, disruption cannot occur in any territory. But, according to the definition of lifelong learning from UNESCO, together with the« When it comes to education, disruption cannot occurin any territory, but, according to the definition of lifelong learning from UNESCO, together with the concepts of andragogy and heutagogy, that is possible. Although these are not new terms, they add up to support the development of a theory of disruptive education.

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Chapter 4: The social and technological revolution founds the information society

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4THE SOCIAL AND TECHNOLOGICALREVOLUTION FOUNDS THEINFORMATION SOCIETY« The history of mankind is usually described in terms of ages; whose names reflect the stages of development they went through: the stone age, the bronze age, the iron age and so on, reaching the industrial age, which laid the foundations of our modern industrial society. Nowadays, it is increasingly accepted that we are entering a new age, a post-industrial phase in which the ability to use information has become decisive, not only for the production of goods, but also for the efforts that seek to improve life quality.This new age is increasingly referred to as the information age.” (IBM Advertising, 1977).The 1960s were marked by movements led by university students, which could be characterized as of “revolutionary imprint”, as they questioned not only the political order, but also various aspects of social life, triggering considerable changes in society around the world. The events of May 1968 included mobilizations that took place in various parts of the world, from the US to Czechoslovakia, from France to Brazil, and were not only held in May or in 1968, but those received a key status, becoming a late 20th century reference.

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Chapter 9: How new technologies change people and the world

José Claudio Securato Saint Paul Editora PDF Criptografado

9HOW NEW TECHNOLOGIESCHANGE PEOPLE AND THE WORLD« In view of the multiple challenges posed bythe future, education appears as an indispensable asset so that humanity has the possibility to progress in the consolidation of ideals of peace, freedom and social justice. In the end of its work, the Commission makes a point of affirming its faith in the essential role of education for the continuous development of people and societies: not as a miraculous cure, even less as an “open sesame” of a world that has fulfilled all its ideals, but as a means – certainly, among other means, although more effective – in service of a more harmonious and authentic human development, in order to contribute to the reduction of poverty, social exclusion, misunderstandings, oppression, wars […](Jacques Delors1)WHY A DISRUPTIVE EDUCATION?In this chapter, I highlight the reasons for encouraging disruptive education. Why innovate in education? Why a disruptive education? Some reasons are: the need for education to reflect technological, economic and social developments; the fact that society calls for the evolution of education; and, mainly, for the contribution of education to a better world.

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Chapter 1: From the origin of universities to business schools: the beginnings of education for work

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1FROM THE ORIGIN OFUNIVERSITIES TO BUSINESSSCHOOLS: THE BEGINNINGS OFEDUCATION FOR WORKFIGURE 1.1 – François GuizotSOURCE: Wikimedia Commons (2016).François Guizot, a French politician who lived between the 18th and 19th centuries, said, “human institutions and laws are created to meet the needs of a given time, and survive while meeting those needs and expectations”1.This statement seems very reasonable if we draw a brief parallel between the history of economic development and that of education. Two institutions will be addressed in this chapter: the university and the business school. While it is very common for the latter to derive from the former, different needs throughout history have required these institutions to develop differently. Let’s see how.22ONLEARNING - How disruptive education reinvents learningTHE FIRST UNIVERSITIESIn the late 11th century, Europe was undergoing a period of social and economic transformation, that spurred the emergence of the world’s first vocational schools.

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Chapter 7: Technologies as means of disruption

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7TECHNOLOGIES AS MEANSOF DISRUPTIONIt would be impossible to understand the disruption of education without understanding the foundations of new technologies and the transformative power these technologies possess. I have added this chapter to show you, the reader, how concrete the changes that the world is going through are, from the development of some technologies and the imminent digital transformation that we are experiencing, and to update you on the impacting changes that people, organizations and the whole society will suffer from them.I felt the need for this chapter to describe such advances in technology, for I often come across questions about the imminence of its impact on society, and I feel a great deal of reluctance from those a little further from this reality, or simply more skeptical about it. Many people are still unaware of some of these tools – or, even though they have heard of them, they have not gone into the subject – and keep themselves away from those technologies that will be catalysts for big changes, such as Blockchain, IoT, 3D Printer, autonomous vehicles and Artificial Intelligence, for example. This is quite reasonable when we think of a de-synchronized world in which participants in society, in their various contexts, maintain different levels of knowledge on the subject.

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Chapter 12: Conclusion

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12CONCLUSION« Confucius and Lao-Tzu in China; Aristotle,Socrates and Plato in ancient Greece; Cicero,Evelid and Quintillian in ancient Rome. All were also exclusive adult educators.The perception of these great thinkers regarding learning was that it is a process of active inquiry, not passive reception, of transmitted contents.Therefore, their educational techniques challenged the apprentice to question.(Ari Batista de Oliveira, author of A essência andragógica para empresas –The andragogic essence for companies, 2011).« [...] with the increasing development ofartificial intelligence, an AI teacher available at all times will soon become reality”.(Peter Diamandis and Steven Kotler, “predicting” the future in the bookAbundance – The future is better than you think, 2012).«One of the things about learning to read is, [...] we have been consuming a lot of information with our eyes, and this channel is very inefficient. My prediction is that (in 30 years) we will ingest information. You’re going to swallow a pill and know English. You’re going to swallow a pill and know Shakespeare. And the way to do it is through the bloodstream.

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Chapter 5: From the internet to smartphones, a path to education through experience

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5FROM THE INTERNET TOSMARTPHONES, A PATH TOEDUCATION THROUGH EXPERIENCEThe 1990s were marked by the release of the internet to the public, which greatly affected all sectors of society and economy, including the education sector.The advent of the internet marked the end of an era dominated by financial capital, and ceded part of its hegemony to intellectual capital. In the midst of technological evolution, new behaviors and needs emerged that were also incorporated by education.It was from this period that the European Union, for example, associated the concept of lifelong learning with a mechanism capable of enabling its strategic goal of becoming the most competitive and dynamic economy in the world. That was when distance education made its big leap, enabling access to higher education and changing the relationship between students, teachers and institutions.The access to the online communication system known as Bulletin BoardSystem (BBS) was released to educational institutions in the early 1990s, but it did not trigger as many transformations as the popularization of the internet.

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Capítulo 9. Um olhar para a aprendizagem socioemocional no STEAM

Lilian Bacich, Leandro Holanda Grupo A ePub Criptografado

Capítulo 9

Débora Garofalo

Lilian Bacich

Aprender, até pouco tempo, traduzia-se em entrar em contato com novas informações, novos conhecimentos que eram compartilhados por professores ou livros, únicas fontes de conteúdos escolares. Hoje, a educação vive uma realidade bem diferente, na qual as fontes de novas informações estão na palma da mão. Em uma breve busca na internet, o estudante encontra respostas às suas perguntas, mas depara-se com o dilema de analisar os resultados obtidos. A forma de lidar com esses resultados e de se posicionar diante deles é algo que não se ensinava na escola. Reproduzir conhecimentos em uma avaliação não é mais um desafio para a educação deste nosso século, mas sim saber o que fazer com eles para lidar com novas situações, resolver problemas de forma ética, responsável e cidadã, construir argumentos para defender suas ideias ou para confrontá-las com novas fontes de informação, analisar esses conhecimentos e, de forma criativa, criar modos de resolver antigos e novos problemas. Como considerar essas novas formas de lidar com o conhecimento se as escolas ainda estão baseadas em conteúdos estanques que precisam ser transmitidos aos estudantes? Como abordar essas novas habilidades se as avaliações escolares consideram a forma como os estudantes devolvem o conhecimento que lhes foi transmitido em aulas, na maioria das vezes, essencialmente expositivas?

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Capítulo 5. Considerações sobre o ensino e a aprendizagem de tecnologia no contexto do STEAM

Lilian Bacich, Leandro Holanda Grupo A ePub Criptografado

Capítulo 5

Francisco Tupy Gomes Correa

Jean Rafael Tomceac

Ao iniciarmos a escrita deste capítulo, pensamos em explicar o STEAM a partir da função da letra “T” no acrônimo e trazer referências bibliográficas para a devida fundamentação e exemplos inovadores para inspirar professores. Contudo, à medida que íamos progredindo na escrita, vimos que, de tão futurista aquilo que havíamos planejado, não se encaixaria no presente e, principalmente, na realidade vivida. Apesar da intenção de (suposta) inovação, uma discussão sobre a tecnologia traria pouca contribuição efetiva ao cotidiano da sala de aula e aos impactos concretos nos processos de ensino e de aprendizagem de modo bem estruturado e condizente com o ambiente em que vivemos.

Após esse momento de encarar a realidade e buscar a prática, fizemos um exercício de pensar sobre o cotidiano. O que acontece quando surge algo novo? Quando a novidade vira uma obrigação trazendo demandas e alterando rotinas? Em diversos momentos isso aconteceu conosco e com todos aqueles que conhecemos, não apenas com a dita terminologia STEAM, mas também com tantas novidades educacionais que não alcançaram a inovação e a mudança que se pretendia com sua implementação.

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Capítulo 7. O papel das artes e do design no STEAM

Lilian Bacich, Leandro Holanda Grupo A ePub Criptografado

Capítulo 7

João Epifânio Regis Lima

© Jacob Tonski, Balance from within, 2010-2013

Fonte: Tonski ([2012]).

Neste capítulo, tratarei inicialmente do porquê da importância de incluir a arte na educação de modo geral. Em seguida, buscarei examinar o papel desempenhado pela arte e pelo design especificamente na proposta STEAM, confrontando-a com a abordagem STEM, que a precedeu. A partir disso, apresentarei alguns cases buscando ilustrar minha prática como professor STEAM enquanto exponho e discuto algumas dificuldades na implementação dessa proposta em uma escola privada de ensino médio de São Paulo. Por fim, discorro sobre outras perspectivas possíveis para eventuais futuras variações e releituras do STEAM como proposta pedagógica.

Estamos vivendo em um mundo de mudanças que acontecem em velocidade vertiginosa, em grande parte por causa do grande progresso recente da tecnologia digital. Esse mundo em constante transformação tem sido designado desde o final do século passado por uma sigla, VUCA (VICA em português), que resume suas principais características. O “V” refere-se à volatilidade, ao caráter efêmero, passageiro, fluido, diria Zygmunt Bauman (2001, 2007), dos valores, das relações, dos produtos e das ideias; o “I” significa incerto; o “C” abrevia complexo, referindo-se, em grande parte, à explosão de conectividade de todos com todos e de tudo com tudo; e o “A” diz respeito à ambiguidade de um mundo paradoxal, no qual não há respostas certas e definitivas para quase nada. Segundo a pesquisadora e pensadora digital Martha Gabriel, a volatilidade do mundo atual exige que sejamos criativos, para encontrar novas saídas e soluções, e resilientes, para não desistir facilmente diante dos desafios (SEU NEGÓCIO..., 2018). A incerteza aponta para a insuficiência do planejamento, o que exige de nós flexibilidade, rapidez e capacidade de adaptação. A complexidade demanda colaboração e multidisciplinaridade, e o caráter ambíguo do mundo VUCA pede lucidez, clareza, abertura, tolerância e firmeza de decisão.

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Capítulo 1. STEAM: integrando as áreas para desenvolver competências

Lilian Bacich, Leandro Holanda Grupo A ePub Criptografado

Capítulo 1

Lilian Bacich

Leandro Holanda

A busca por uma educação que coloque o estudante em um papel investigativo não é algo recente, nem mesmo pode ser atribuída às metodologias ativas – experiências de aprendizagem que inserem o estudante no centro dos processos de ensino e de aprendizagem. Esse movimento, não de forma integrada, acontece há mais de um século, e são inúmeros os educadores, pensadores e pesquisadores que têm dedicado suas carreiras para repensar o processo que leva a uma aprendizagem não somente de conceitos, mas que desenvolva também valores e competências.

Essas mudanças não ocorrem apenas na educação, são parte de um processo que se dá na própria sociedade. Para Fadel, Bialik e Trilling (2015), são justamente essas mudanças da sociedade que intensificam os processos de mudança na educação.

Estamos testemunhando transformações – mudanças dramáticas e abrangentes, como a mobilidade internacional, mudanças nas estruturas das famílias, aumento na diversidade das populações, a globalização e seus impactos na competitividade econômica e coesão social, profissões e carreiras novas e emergentes, avanços tecnológicos rápidos e contínuos, maior uso das tecnologias, etc. E as mudanças tecnológicas estão acontecendo com muita rapidez, muitas vezes intensificando os desafios da sociedade. (FADEL; BIALIK; TRILLING, 2015, p. 15).

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