Onlearning

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Onlearning - How disruptive education reinvents learning brings a new concept, which appears as a response to the desire for change in education, specifically in education for executives, in the face of the exponential and out-of-sync transformations of society, which happen through technology and revolutionize organizations, people's lives and customs; with the aim of extracting the best from this evolution and expanding it in a maximized way into executive learning.
The work consists of three parts: Part I deals with the history of work–oriented education, executive education, and business schools. It shows how the teaching of Administration was formalized, mainly by business schools, and what learning and cognition methodologies were developed by the various thinkers of the 19th and 20th centuries, whose models have repercussions until today.
Part II outlines the scenario in which technology and digital transformation are consolidated as fundamental means for creating disruption in the most diverse areas of knowledge and industry sectors. It approaches how Clayton Christensen's theory of disruptive strategy defies the logic of traditional innovation, as well as what are the effects of new technologies on the economy, society and people's lives, and how fast are they advancing to become accessible, radically transforming reality.
Finally, Part III deals with education and Saint Paul's disruptive proposal for executive education, Onlearning. It reflects on the need for education to concretely impact technological evolution in a broad way, in its economic and social aspect. It ends by presenting 20 conclusions on Onlearning, featuring objectives, actions, and projections for the future of education, based on the proposal to reinvent education through the resources that technology and digital transformation make available to everyone.

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Chapter 1: From the origin of universities to business schools: the beginnings of education for work

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1FROM THE ORIGIN OFUNIVERSITIES TO BUSINESSSCHOOLS: THE BEGINNINGS OFEDUCATION FOR WORKFIGURE 1.1 – François GuizotSOURCE: Wikimedia Commons (2016).François Guizot, a French politician who lived between the 18th and 19th centuries, said, “human institutions and laws are created to meet the needs of a given time, and survive while meeting those needs and expectations”1.This statement seems very reasonable if we draw a brief parallel between the history of economic development and that of education. Two institutions will be addressed in this chapter: the university and the business school. While it is very common for the latter to derive from the former, different needs throughout history have required these institutions to develop differently. Let’s see how.22ONLEARNING - How disruptive education reinvents learningTHE FIRST UNIVERSITIESIn the late 11th century, Europe was undergoing a period of social and economic transformation, that spurred the emergence of the world’s first vocational schools.

 

Chapter 2: Science and technology create a new world: from the economy to education, the path to efficiency opens

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2SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCREATE A NEW WORLD: FROMTHE ECONOMY TO EDUCATION,THE PATH TO EFFICIENCY OPENSKnowing the historical panorama of the turn of the 19th to the 20th century is fundamental, so that we can have the dimension of how dynamic that period was. From 1894 onwards, there were such striking changes in economics, science and technology that the world would never be the same after this period. Thus, technological advance boosted the economy, and the gold standard established a world economy, narrowing the boundaries between countries, stimulating trade between the great powers and promoting growth.The gold standard was created as a way to unify the world’s economy, establishing the sameThe Golden criteria for all countries in trade and financial reAge, together with lations. By adopting the gold standard, one country showed the rest of the world that it was ecotechnological availability, nomically reliable. In contrast, countries seeking allowed intense self-sufficiency suffered from isolation in a world with fewer and fewer barriers. integration between the

 

Chapter 3: Companies influence consumption and train workers to sustain organizational culture

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3COMPANIES INFLUENCE CONSUMPTIONAND TRAIN WORKERS TO SUSTAINORGANIZATIONAL CULTUREThe first 50 years of the 20th century were marked by the two biggest wars ever seen in the world. If World War I had already shocked for the number of deaths, the degree of destruction caused and the strategies developed by then, WorldWar II came with even more strength, more technology, and an ideological burden that deepened the conflict, decimating between 50 and 75 million lives1.For the first time, the majority were civilians. Several bombings were carried out on a large number of cities, leaving many of them completely destroyed, and permanently erasing much of humanity’s historical heritage.On September 1, 1939, when the Nazist German army of Adolf Hitler invaded Poland, several countries were already at war: Ethiopia against Italy; China against Japan, among others. In addition, the Spanish Civil War, which directly involved Italy and Germany in supporting Franco’s military coup, was also taking place. Many of these combats were still related to the postponement of the search for an effective resolution to pre-existing conflicts that triggered World

 

Chapter 4: The social and technological revolution founds the information society

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4THE SOCIAL AND TECHNOLOGICALREVOLUTION FOUNDS THEINFORMATION SOCIETY« The history of mankind is usually described in terms of ages; whose names reflect the stages of development they went through: the stone age, the bronze age, the iron age and so on, reaching the industrial age, which laid the foundations of our modern industrial society. Nowadays, it is increasingly accepted that we are entering a new age, a post-industrial phase in which the ability to use information has become decisive, not only for the production of goods, but also for the efforts that seek to improve life quality.This new age is increasingly referred to as the information age.” (IBM Advertising, 1977).The 1960s were marked by movements led by university students, which could be characterized as of “revolutionary imprint”, as they questioned not only the political order, but also various aspects of social life, triggering considerable changes in society around the world. The events of May 1968 included mobilizations that took place in various parts of the world, from the US to Czechoslovakia, from France to Brazil, and were not only held in May or in 1968, but those received a key status, becoming a late 20th century reference.

 

Chapter 5: From the internet to smartphones, a path to education through experience

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5FROM THE INTERNET TOSMARTPHONES, A PATH TOEDUCATION THROUGH EXPERIENCEThe 1990s were marked by the release of the internet to the public, which greatly affected all sectors of society and economy, including the education sector.The advent of the internet marked the end of an era dominated by financial capital, and ceded part of its hegemony to intellectual capital. In the midst of technological evolution, new behaviors and needs emerged that were also incorporated by education.It was from this period that the European Union, for example, associated the concept of lifelong learning with a mechanism capable of enabling its strategic goal of becoming the most competitive and dynamic economy in the world. That was when distance education made its big leap, enabling access to higher education and changing the relationship between students, teachers and institutions.The access to the online communication system known as Bulletin BoardSystem (BBS) was released to educational institutions in the early 1990s, but it did not trigger as many transformations as the popularization of the internet.

 

Chapter 6: Clayton Christensen’s theory of disruptive innovation

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6CLAYTON CHRISTENSEN’STHEORY OF DISRUPTIVEINNOVATIONUnderstanding Professor Clayton Christensen’s theory on disruptive strategy is critical in order to build a reasoning and address disruptive education, as we will see in Part III of this book. Christensen has had a lot of influence on my ideas and, even more, has encouraged me to come up with a concept that I find innovative for learning: Onlearning.Christensen questioned the logic of business development in recent decades and opened my eyes to different ways of thinking the executive education sector.However, the goal here is not to evaluate whether Onlearning is a disruptive innovation, but to get to know some of the characteristics of disruption, in a new proposal for executive education.THE THEORY OF DISRUPTIVE STRATEGYIn 1995, the theory of disruptive strategy presented by Harvard Business School professor Clayton Christensen challenged the logic of traditional innovation – which he called sustaining innovation – and identified a type of innovation that deconstructs the way organizations think, called disruptive innovation1. History shows that, in practice, disruptive innovation is all that eliminates what was there before and, often, takes its place. Like David’s fight against the giant Goliath, it relates to the vigor and creativity of a small and sometimes unpretentious business which, cleverly and bravely, beats a market giant – who many times is immobilized, hostage to its own track record of success.

 

Chapter 7: Technologies as means of disruption

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7TECHNOLOGIES AS MEANSOF DISRUPTIONIt would be impossible to understand the disruption of education without understanding the foundations of new technologies and the transformative power these technologies possess. I have added this chapter to show you, the reader, how concrete the changes that the world is going through are, from the development of some technologies and the imminent digital transformation that we are experiencing, and to update you on the impacting changes that people, organizations and the whole society will suffer from them.I felt the need for this chapter to describe such advances in technology, for I often come across questions about the imminence of its impact on society, and I feel a great deal of reluctance from those a little further from this reality, or simply more skeptical about it. Many people are still unaware of some of these tools – or, even though they have heard of them, they have not gone into the subject – and keep themselves away from those technologies that will be catalysts for big changes, such as Blockchain, IoT, 3D Printer, autonomous vehicles and Artificial Intelligence, for example. This is quite reasonable when we think of a de-synchronized world in which participants in society, in their various contexts, maintain different levels of knowledge on the subject.

 

Chapter 9: How new technologies change people and the world

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9HOW NEW TECHNOLOGIESCHANGE PEOPLE AND THE WORLD« In view of the multiple challenges posed bythe future, education appears as an indispensable asset so that humanity has the possibility to progress in the consolidation of ideals of peace, freedom and social justice. In the end of its work, the Commission makes a point of affirming its faith in the essential role of education for the continuous development of people and societies: not as a miraculous cure, even less as an “open sesame” of a world that has fulfilled all its ideals, but as a means – certainly, among other means, although more effective – in service of a more harmonious and authentic human development, in order to contribute to the reduction of poverty, social exclusion, misunderstandings, oppression, wars […](Jacques Delors1)WHY A DISRUPTIVE EDUCATION?In this chapter, I highlight the reasons for encouraging disruptive education. Why innovate in education? Why a disruptive education? Some reasons are: the need for education to reflect technological, economic and social developments; the fact that society calls for the evolution of education; and, mainly, for the contribution of education to a better world.

 

Chapter 10: Disruptive education

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10DISRUPTIVE EDUCATIONChristensen’s ideas can shed light on some of the transformations we need in school, mutatis mutandis1.DISRUPTIVE EDUCATIONHaving presented the context and the reasons for encouraging the concept of disruptive education, I go ahead with this chapter to address its four foundations:1.2.3.4.Clayton Christensen’s disruptive innovation model in educationUnesco’s four pillars for lifelong learningAndragogyHeutagogySplitting into two parts, we have: education and disruption, terms that I associate with their respective foundations, arriving at the concept of disruptive education.When it comes to education, disruption cannot occur in any territory. But, according to the definition of lifelong learning from UNESCO, together with the« When it comes to education, disruption cannot occurin any territory, but, according to the definition of lifelong learning from UNESCO, together with the concepts of andragogy and heutagogy, that is possible. Although these are not new terms, they add up to support the development of a theory of disruptive education.

 

Chapter 11: Onlearning

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11ONLEARNING« It is far easier to perceive and tocriticize the aspects in motivation theory than to remedy them1.(Abraham Maslow)ONLEARNINGWatch the video “LIT What is the concept ofOnlearning?”.In this chapter, I present the eight fundamentals of Onlearning, and bring you its concept and definition. Onlearing is a new conception of learning. For this reason, its foundations defy the conventional logic of business schools and universities. With this model, I propose solutions mainly for the future of executive education – not only for the present – in line with Clayton Christensen’s disruptive strategy theory.I will explain each of the fundamentals separately, but without ever attempting to exhaust them. On the contrary, I am aware that each of the themes I address here would deserve a separate book.Some of the fundamentals that I cover here may seem to be barely tangible, as there are no comprehensive records of their application around the world, however all are proven to be possible to be implemented. Most of these fundamentals have a strong connection and need for technology to be enabled. It is reasonable, therefore, to evolve very quickly in the way that each of these fundamentals is applied and made tangible. Therefore, even if some of these applications of the fundamentals may seem “delayed”, the concepts that underlie them are timeless.

 

Chapter 12: Conclusion

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12CONCLUSION« Confucius and Lao-Tzu in China; Aristotle,Socrates and Plato in ancient Greece; Cicero,Evelid and Quintillian in ancient Rome. All were also exclusive adult educators.The perception of these great thinkers regarding learning was that it is a process of active inquiry, not passive reception, of transmitted contents.Therefore, their educational techniques challenged the apprentice to question.(Ari Batista de Oliveira, author of A essência andragógica para empresas –The andragogic essence for companies, 2011).« [...] with the increasing development ofartificial intelligence, an AI teacher available at all times will soon become reality”.(Peter Diamandis and Steven Kotler, “predicting” the future in the bookAbundance – The future is better than you think, 2012).«One of the things about learning to read is, [...] we have been consuming a lot of information with our eyes, and this channel is very inefficient. My prediction is that (in 30 years) we will ingest information. You’re going to swallow a pill and know English. You’re going to swallow a pill and know Shakespeare. And the way to do it is through the bloodstream.

 

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